Chapter 14
Section 2

Process Names: Synonyms and Variations

Nineteenth century photographic nomenclature contains a certain amount of confusion and lack of uniformity, reflecting the historical situation. Some of the type names merely represent minor variations of a single fundamental process, yet it is desirable to recognize such historical details for dating clues and identification. The plethora of names makes organizing and searching cumbersome, particularly in simplified flow charts. The worst aspect of this dilemma is that too much simplification will lead to loss of recognition of occasional rare and significant specimens.

The five sections of this chapter address this problem by offering several levels of identification guidance, from visual examination to an interactive computer program. The first step in developing these guides was to make as complete a list as practicable of the historical names in the literature, along with alternate names or minor variants. Obviously consistent naming is crucial to classification and retrieval. Attempting completeness is a lengthy undertaking. This compilation based on historical names was begun some years before recent archival work based on neologisms (process-descriptive names) was published. The solution of difficult identification problems can be significantly aided by consulting the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus (reference 1).

Representative key names were then chosen for each process to be carried through the identification procedures. Names for which alternates have been found are so listed. Not all anomalies could be eliminated; some photographic processes were applied to different bases with the same name. The FOTOFIND computer program is advantageous in such cases, for simplified flow charts can get very tangled. Capitalization is generally retained for types derived from inventors' names or trade names. This practise is not universal: for example, 'Daguerreotype' is not always capitalized in the literature. Another example: the names ferrotype and Ferrotype, differing only in the capitalization, refer to two different processes [Eder 46 p326], and are frequently confused in the literature, especially at the start of sentences.

Key Names

1. Paper, uncoated overall: Chapter 1
amphitype
anthotype (alt. amylotype)
Breyertype (alt. Playertype)
calotype (alt. Talbotype, salt print)
catalysotype
catatype
ceroleine (alt. LeGray process)
chromatype
chrysotype (alt. chripotype)
cyanotype
energiatype (alt. ferrotype)
Feertype (alt. diazotype)
fluorotype
kallitype (alt. argentotype)
palladiotype
platinotype
2. Coated paper: Chapters 2, 4
albumen
aristo (alt. Aristotype, Simpsontype)
cameo
carbon (alt. anthrakotype, Autotype, chromotype, gum
bichromate, hydrotype, Lambertype, Mariotype)
carbro (alt. ozobrome, ozotype, Mariotype)
Charbon Velour
crystallotype (probable syn. chrystollotype)
gaslight(alt.Velox,Solio,Azo,Aristo)
Gaudinotype
gum bichromate
gum platinum
melanograph (alt. atrograph)
metotype
photoglyphic (alt. gum print)
transferotype
Wothlytype (alt. uranium print)
3. Glass: Chapters 6, 7
ambrotype(alt.Relievo,Hallotype) amphitype
Archertype (alt. collodiotype, wet collodion plate)
contretype
crystoleum (alt. Crystal photo)
diaphanotype (alt. hallotype, hellenotype)
diapositive
eburneum
ectograph
Gaudinotype
Hallotype: (alt. hellenotype; also see ambrotype)
Hyalotype
ivorytype
opalotype
sphereotype
4. Metal: Chapters 7, 9
Daguerreotype electrotype
enamaline
tintype (alt. ferrotype, Gem, melainotype)
tithnotype
5. Photomechanical: Chapter 5
Autotype (alt. carbon, collotype)
aquatint
chalkotype
collotype (also Albertype, artotype, Autotype, bromoil, Dallastype, heliotype, Levytype, Paynetype, phototype, photoglyphic)
Leggotype
Meisenbach
Photogravure
Plumbeotype
Woodburytype (alt. photoglyptic, stannotype)
6. Miscellaneous bases: Chapter 3, 9.
atrephograph
diazotype (alt. Feertype)
Eburneum
nitrate film
pannotype (alt. linotype, linograph)
safety film (alt. gelatin, acetate)
Stanhope
transferotype
Alphabetical Process Name Index

Albertype: type of collotype.
albumen
ambrotype: alt. Relievo, Hallotype
amphitype
amylotype: alt. anthotype.
anthotype: alt. amylotype
anthrakotype: type of carbon.
aquatint
Archertype: alt. collodiotype, wet plate collodion
argentotype: alt. kallitype.
Aristo: alt. aristotype
artotype: type of collotype.
atrephograph
atrograph: alt. melanograph.
Autotype: type of collotype and carbon.

Breyertype: alt. Playertype
bromoil: type of collotype

calotype: alt. Talbotype, salt print
cameo: type of carte‑de‑visite
carbon: alt. anthrakotype, Autotype, chromotype, gum bichromate, hydrotype, Lambertype, Mariotype
carbro: alt. ozobrome, ozotype, Mariotype
catalysotype
catatype
ceroleine: alt. LeGray process
chalkotype
Charbon Velour
chripotype: alt. chrysotype
chromatype
chromotype: type of carbon
chrysotype: alt. chripotype
chrystollotype: possible synonym of crystallotype
collodiotype: alt. Archertype, wet plate collodion
collotype: alt. Albertype, artotype, Autotype, bromoil, Dallastype, heliotype, Levytype, Paynetype, phototype,, photoglyphic
contretype
crystallotype: see chrystollotype
crystoleum: alt. Crystal photo
cyanotype

Daguerreotype
Dallastype
diaphanotype: alt. hallotype, hellenotype
diapositive
diazotype: synonym of Feertype

Eburneum
ectograph
electrotype
enamaline
energiatype: alt. ferrotype

Feertype: alt. diazotype
Ferrotype: alt. energiatype
ferrotype: alt. tintype
fluorotype

gaslight: alt. Velox, Solio, Azo, Aristo
Gaudinotype
Gem: type of tintype
gum bichromate; alt. carbon
gum platinum

hallotype: alt. diaphanotype, ambrotype
heliotype: type of collotype
hellenotype: alt. diaphanotype
Hyalotype
hydrotype: type of carbon

ivorytype

kallitype: alt. argentotype

Lambertype: type of carbon
LeGray: alt. ceroleine
Leggotype
Levytype: type of collotype
linograph: alt. pannotype
linotype: alt. pannotype

Mariotype: type of carbon, carbro
Meisenbach
melainotype: alt. tintype
melanograph: alt. atrograph
metotype

nitrate film

opalotype
ozobrome: type of carbro
ozotype: type of carbro

palladiotype
pannotype: alt. linotype, linograph
Paynetype: type of collotype
phototype: type of collotype
photoglyphic: type of collotype
photoglyptic: alt. Woodburytype
photogravure
platinotype
Playertype: alt. Breyertype
Plumbeotype

Relievo: type of ambrotype

salt print: alt. calotype
safety film: alt. gelatin, acetate
sphereotype
Stanhope
stannotype: type of Woodburytype
Simpsontype: alt. aristotype

Talbotype: alt. calotype
tintype: alt. Ferrotype, Gem, melainotype
tithnotype
transferotype

uranium; alt. Wothlytype

wet plate: alt. Archertype, collodiotype
Woodburytype
Wothlytype: alt. uranium print

Some name similarities requiring caution:
Autotype, artotype
calotype, collotype, kallitype
carbon, carbro
chromatype, chromotype
chrysotype, chrystollotype, crystallotype
ferrotype, Ferrotype, Feertype
hallotype, heliotype, hellenotype
melainotype, melanograph
opaline, opalotype
photoglyptic, photoglyphic